This article is from WeChat official account:There is a university (ID: youjian-university) span> , author: Chidori, head Figure from: vision China

School is about to start, and a group of people will be waiting in front of the course selection system. Whether you can successfully choose your favorite course may affect the entire semester.

“Looking at the name of a teacher in the next school for a long time, can I choose his class across the school?”

“I am in a university of science and technology and want to listen to literature, history and philosophy, can I take a course at the liberal arts university next door?”

“Dating with boyfriend at different school, do you have a chance to go to class together?”

It is feasible to go to another school out of interest to audit, but it is more ideal to take credits directly in other schools.

Neither interest nor credits can be discarded. /”Emergency Interrogation Room 3″

On January 26 this year, the Ministry of Education pointed out in a letter of reply to a proposal of a meeting of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference that in recent years, the Ministry of Education has issued a number of policies to actively promote the mutual recognition of credits between universities and gradually improve the mechanism of mutual recognition of online credits. .

Cross-school electives and mutual recognition of credits make “teaching next door” a reality.

In someone else’s school, earn your own credits

Early last year, Peking University and Tsinghua University jointly issued a notice announcing that the two universities will open some undergraduate courses to each other in the spring semester of 2020, and the credits will be mutually recognized.

TwoThe strong teamwork of the school made the netizens of this session say that it is sweeter than the knocked CP, “Mom no longer has to worry, I should go to Peking University or Tsinghua University.”

The strongest CP I have ever knocked down is Qingbei. /Weibo

At the beginning of this year, the two schools announced that they would continue to open alternative courses in the fall semester of 2020, while further expanding the types and capacity of courses.

Among them, Peking University will open 56 core undergraduate courses, including 396 places, to Tsinghua undergraduates, including “Charming Robot” and “Fluid Wave Dynamics”; Tsinghua University will open 27 high-quality courses, including 299 Places.

Tsinghua students can listen to philosophical masters talking by the Weiming Lake, and Peking University students have the opportunity to shuttle back and forth between big data, machine intelligence, and industrial production.

On the level of running a school, Tsinghua University and Peking University are evenly matched. This practice of mutual selection of courses and mutual recognition of credits between universities is in view of the European Credit Exchange System(ECTS).

In 1995, ECTS was formally established in Europe in order to allow universities to connect with each other in the field of education. Under this mechanism, credits become equivalents like currency, which are circulated and converted in EU countries.

The content, types, registration procedures and other information of the courses that students study in a college are all recorded in the information package.

If you need to study across schools, you must fill out the European Credit Exchange Application Form. After the original school and the receiving school have concluded a learning agreement, the former promises to recognize the students’ learning achievements and credits in the latter.

ECTS has also established a special management agency to coordinate credit transfer standards to ensure the effective operation of the European credit exchange system.

The learning efficiency is not high, how can I take electives across schools? /”Bottom Hot Girl”

The exchange of credits commonly used in large areas in Europe is often manifested in our country as a group heating between geographically adjacent universities, in the form of a teaching community or a university city alliance.

In 1999, universities in the Beijing Xueyuan Road area established a teaching community, including many universities such as Beihang University, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, China University of Geosciences, China Agricultural University, and China University of Mining and Technology.

Under the leadership of the Academic Affairs Joint Conference, the mutual selection of courses and mutual recognition of credits among colleges and universities in the College Road area have been realized.

After the millennium, nine colleges and universities in Nanjing Xianlin University Town jointly established a teaching consortium, and mutual recognition of credits, cross-school course selection, book borrowing, and mutual use of laboratories were realized.

In 2014, the Guangzhou University City University Alliance was born, dedicated to promoting the mutual recognition of credits, the open sharing of laboratory resources, and the joint training of undergraduates among twelve universities.

It is not wishful thinking for colleges and universities to explore the realization of inter-university course selection. The students do have a demand for this.

A survey conducted in 2020 by the Social Survey Center of China Youth Daily and the Social Survey Center showed that 96.4% of college students surveyed would like to have more opportunities to choose courses across schools.

Among them, 72.5% of the interviewed college students believe that colleges and universities can choose courses to allow students to experience a different campus culture, and 69.9% of the interviewed students believe that it can provide diversified learning opportunities.

With the implementation of mutual recognition of credits, there are legitimate reasons to go to the school next door.

Remote group CP, classmates are also netizens

If the teaching community built by colleges and universities adjacent to the region is regarded as a group, then the farther colleges and universities share the teaching content or coursesExchanges in other aspects are comparable to “long-distance relationships.”

With the help of distance education platform, Ningxia University “married” Shanghai Jiaotong University. The joint school-running agreement signed by the two schools includes content related to technological improvement and scientific design of curriculum processes.

For the online courses offered by the two universities on the remote platform, the credits earned by students can be interchanged.

Ningxia University has also established three computer rooms, dedicated to cross-school course selection and mutual recognition of credits, to provide students with free online learning conditions.

Would you like to study in the computer room together? /”Small Smiles Are Allure”

Different from Tsinghua and Peking University’s mutual selection of courses based on the quality of running schools at the same level, Ningxia University and Shanghai Jiaotong University have a gap in comprehensive strength and resources.

Actually, Ningxia University is a western university supported by Shanghai Jiaotong University.

The distance education platform built by the two universities is of advanced nature to help the backward. The purpose is to allow Ningxia University to share the teaching staff of Shanghai Jiaotong University. The mutual recognition of credits mainly means that Ningxia University recognizes the credits of Shanghai Jiaotong University.

When students located in the northwest and east coasts of the Great Northwest open the same network to choose courses at the same time, what implicates them is the knowledge that follows the network cable and the electric current transmission.

Under the active contact of Shanghai Jiaotong University, Ningxia University communicated with Zhejiang University, Xi’an Jiaotong University and other universities, and introduced multimedia network courses from other universities.

Using the self-developed distance education platform to carry out inter-school course selection, mutual recognition of credits, and joint school running, there are also CPs composed of Shanghai Jiaotong University, Xi’an Jiaotong University, and Zhejiang University.

The three schools signed an agreement in 2002 to share and co-manage a batch of courses, which are open to students of various majors.

When the course name is a compulsory course for the student’s major, and the teaching content and credit requirements are the same as those of the major, it can be exchanged for compulsory course credits, otherwise it will be included as elective course credits.

After students complete their studies, the credits they earn are recognized by three universities. The high-quality educational resources established by the three universities are also sent free to Xinjiang University and Ningxia University and other western universities.

Not in the same school, you can also attend classes together. /”Let’s go to the window together”

Some colleges and universities dispense with independent development steps and make full use of the distance education service platform promoted by the Ministry of Education.

For example, in 2007, Central China Normal University, South China Normal University, and Fujian Normal University used the Open Distance Learning Support Service Platform to carry out cooperation in mutual selection of courses and mutual recognition of credits in the two majors of Chinese Language and Literature and Education Management.

The three colleges and universities consider the teaching requirements of their respective majors, and share the courses by replacing each other. In this way, even the credit conversion process is omitted.

Whether it is the cooperation of colleges and universities that are neighbors geographically, or the establishment of online course selection and mutual recognition of credits, it has increased the channels for inter-school communication for students.

The outbreak of the epidemic has made the latter form of mutual recognition of credits highly valued.

In 2020, the Ministry of Education will issue relevant guidance documents to guide students to actively take online high-quality courses during the epidemic prevention and control period, and formulate policies for mutual recognition and conversion of online course credits to protect students from the epidemic.

Choose a good school, or get a good credit?

Although there have been long-standing attempts at mutual selection of courses and mutual recognition of credits, they are all about sharing resources between local universities, and there has never been a large-scale cooperation like ECTS in Europe.

If ECTS is like a closely connected and methodical organization, the cooperation between universities in our country is relatively loose.

ECTS has established a special management organization, composed of the European Commission, consultants, European Higher Education Quality Assurance Agency, and University Credit Exchange Office.

The European Commission requires that every university must appoint a relevant person in charge. Some colleges and universities have set up this position to undertake the application for credit conversion.

One ​​academic year is equivalent to 60 ECTS credits, corresponding to 1500–1800 hours of study, regardless of country, education quality, and education level, in order to transfer credits within the league. /”Small Smiles Are Allure”

In our country, the work of cross-school course selection and credit recognition is mostly “part-time” by teachers in universities who are originally responsible for their own teaching tasks.

In an interview with Guangzhou Youth Daily, a teacher from Guangzhou University Town Alliance said that the University Town University Alliance is for public welfare, and teachers are not full-time to do this work. It takes time to draft documents related to mutual selection of courses and mutual recognition of credits. For a long time, the approval process is long.

Past experience provides hints to practitioners on the road.

Last year, the Hunan Provincial Department of Education issued a clear notice to further promote the mutual selection of courses and mutual recognition of credits among universities in the Science and Technology City of Yuelu Mountain University.

It was emphasized that the three universities of Central South University, Hunan University, and Hunan Normal University should strengthen organizational leadership, with a leader in charge of the school, and establish a work coordination mechanism led by the academic affairs department and co-managed by information assets and other departments.

The deficiencies in organization and management can be improved by improving the coordination of manpower allocation, but the gap between the students’ complex of prestigious universities and cooperative universities is difficult to eliminate.

Teacher Li Ju from Ningxia University once wrote that the introduction ofAfter the courses of Shanghai Jiaotong University, if students choose courses from prestigious schools, it will inevitably affect the learning of the school’s courses, causing the situation of neglecting the other.

The introduction of teachers in disguised form has also caused dissatisfaction and even resistance among some teachers of the same subject and profession. Students who choose courses from prestigious schools, under a set of higher standards of evaluation rules, may not have better results.

“Because of the large difference in teaching quality between the two schools, the difficulty of the exam is different, and the general scores of the elective courses of the prestigious schools are not too high, which brings a certain degree of difficulty to the selection of students in this school. Said.

Will you take courses from prestigious schools? /”Let’s go to the window together”

Similar difficulties also existed in the process of joint running of the seven schools in Wuhan.

Originally, in Wuhan designated seven universities across campus minors, after completing certain credits, you can get a dual degree certificate from another school.

In 2019, the enrollment of the “Joint Running of Seven Schools in Wuhan” will be suspended, and the 2018 students in the alliance will no longer be able to study double degrees across schools. The imagination of “one admission notice can go to seven prestigious schools” was stopped.

The reason is that the inter-university minor double degree is in conflict with the “Administrative Measures for Bachelor Degree Award and Award” issued by the State Council that year. The newly issued documents tend to narrow the window for awarding bachelor degrees.

In addition, the joint running of the seven schools in Wuhan also reveals the students’ complex of prestigious schools.

An expert was interviewed by CETV and said: “Some students fail to reach the scores of Wuhan University and Huake in the college entrance examination, and get together to run to Huake of Wuhan University through double-degree courses.”

The college entrance examination scores are not enough, so we can collect minors across schools. /”Let’s go to the window together”

The joint operation of the seven schools in Wuhan has become a springboard, and it is another way for some people to grasp the admission tickets to famous schools.

However, putting oneself under higher standards and striving to get a double degree, just like the students in Ningxia University who actively challenged each other’s courses from prestigious universities, they are all just to achieve a better self.

Perhaps in the eyes of the people who eat melon, the mutual recognition of credits between Peking University and Tsinghua University will not make people think that someone is “holding the thigh.”

Reference materials:

[1] “European and American Credit Exchange Models and Their Comparison” Xu Laiqun

[2] “Analysis on the Conversion of University Credits in Distance Open Education” Niu Ben

[3] “Guangzhou University City University Alliance, why is it “unified but not alliance”? 》Guangzhou Youth Daily

[4] “Mutual recognition of credits triggers the effect of prestigious universities, Ningxia University “marriage” Shanghai Jiaotong University” Li Ju

[5] “Why is it that Wuhan Seven Schools suspend joint school enrollment? 》Liang Liwei Xiao Xingchi

This article is from WeChat official account:There is a university (ID: youjian-university) span> , author: Chidori