This article is from WeChat official account:East and West Entertainment (ID: EW-Entertainment) , author: Xi Rui, Yang Jing, head from FIG: “Love air”

Small suit, plaid skirt, bow tie. For many Chinese post-80s and post-90s who are accustomed to wearing large sweatshirt school uniforms, Japanese school uniforms, accompanied by Japanese ACGN culture such as film and animation, often bring us an aesthetic impact. This has nothing to do with national self-confidence, purely from the aesthetics of clothing, the benevolent see benevolence, and the wise see wisdom.

In China, quite a few girls love JK uniforms. JK is the abbreviation of (JYOUSHI KOUKOUSEI) for Japanese high school girls. JK uniform refers to school uniforms for high school girls.

Just like people who like Hanfu, some girls like to wear JK uniforms to show their aesthetic propositions and personality. China’s traditional school uniforms dominated by sportswear, although “intimate” elements are also incorporated in the design, with the diversification of aesthetics, young people also hope to have more choices to show their own uniqueness.

As the post-90s generation has gradually become a consumer generation, JK uniforms gradually have their own circle in culture, and they have purchasing power in consumption. In China, JK Uniform, Lolita and Hanfu are collectively referred to as the “Three Hangs” and the “Three Sisters of Bankruptcy.”

Japan is a uniform society. Most people start to wear uniform uniforms from elementary or junior high school until they graduate from high school. University is estimated to be the last era of free clothing in the life of young Japanese people. Once they start working, men will have to wear suits and shoes, and women will have professional wear. Judging from the long history of life, the JK uniform is just a section of the Japanese “lifetime uniform”.

But in fact, the Japanese uniform culture, especially the JK uniform, is not “preceded since ancient times”, but has undergone historical evolution.

The first set of uniforms worn by modern Japanese female students is believed to have originated in 1919 (Japan Taisho period), the day before thatDuring the Meiji era, the uniform culture gradually sprouted as Japan learned from the West. After the Meiji Restoration, uniform culture flourished; during the militarism period, uniforms disappeared and became refuge clothing; in 1947, the Japanese School Education Law was implemented, and uniform culture was promoted to the whole country through the nine-year education system.

But in the 1960s, liberal thoughts arose in the society, and the idea of ​​”believing that uniforms hindered freedom” became popular, and some Japanese schools took off their school uniforms; in the 1980s, as Japan became the world’s second largest economy, The rise of children from generations to generations, the rise of uniforms as a “fashion trend”, has gradually achieved today’s uniform culture.

Nowadays, under the influence of Japanese ACGN culture, China’s JK uniform culture has already gone through the stage of enlightenment and development. It has started from an exclusive circle of independent aesthetics to a wider range of people’s clothing choices. Based on this, it has gradually become A small and beautiful industry.

JK uniform history

Ancient Japanese school uniforms are said to date back to the Asuka Nara period(592~794 AD), when Japan studied the Tang Dynasty and established an official school , The children of the nobles put on uniform costumes to enter the classroom.

But this is too long, and it is a bit different from the school uniform culture that everyone understands now, so I won’t repeat it in detail. The first step of modern Japanese women’s school uniforms is believed to have started in 1919.

At the time, Yamawaki House, the first principal of Yamawaki Gakuen in Tokyo, designed a dress school uniform by himself, which students can wear to learn European and American culture and etiquette. It was the Taisho period in Japan at that time, and Japan has entered a period of deep learning from Europe and the United States.

If you don’t ask men and women, hereIn the past few years, during the Meiji period, (1868~1912), school uniforms had already been produced in Japan.

The following dress was made in 1886 (15th year of Guangxu in Qing Dynasty, 19th year of Meiji in Japan), at that time the only university in Japan-Imperial University Uniforms. The stand-up collar with gold buckle was modified based on the Japanese army uniform at the time, and the “five characteristics” were incorporated into the design. The first is the benign selection that is different from the general public, the second is the correctness of appearance, the third is the identity of the country and the university, and the fourth and fifth are conducive to military gymnastics, marching travel, and Western style. Convenience of boarding life.

At that time, the Imperial University had already discarded the classical education that favored Chinese in the Edo period, and began to promote modern education based on Europe and the United States. This educational philosophy is naturally also reflected in clothing.

So, how did women learn at the time, and what school uniforms did they wear?

In the Meiji period, Japanese female students were educated female representatives, and they attracted attention as the civilized style of the times, including their clothes.

The female student clothing at the time was the casual style of cho girls, with a round hair bun in the kimono. But when sitting on a chair in class, because of the messy hem, you will be forced to wear a male hakama (relatively loose leg clothing). However, hakama was used only by men, and many people opposed to wearing it, and it was abolished afterwards.

(the middle class formed in the era of high economic growth in Japan) gradually grow up and emerge as a new social class. Began to have social influence.

In 1984, the primary-color plaid jacket uniform adopted by the Kayue Academy in Japan, and the camel hair jacket adopted by Shinagawa Girls’ High School in the same period, became an epoch-making fashion at that time, which affected the country. This style also laid the foundation for modern Japanese JK uniforms.

From the 1970s to advocate the abolition of uniform school uniforms, in the 1980s and 1990s, the children of the team generations began to advocate uniformity to highlight the power and belonging of the group, and the social outlook has undergone profound changes.

However, when Japan entered the Heisei era, from the 1990s to the most recent, as Japan entered the so-called lost 30 years, Japan’s easy generation(The generation that grew up under loose education has low learning ability and lack of competitiveness) has become the main force of the younger generation in society, and the Japanese JK uniforms have also been “struck”.

Girls’ high school students in some cities worship money, aid communication is popular, and skirts are getting shorter and shorter. Boys also don’t wear ties properly, and they become social gangsters, reflecting the social outlook of this era.

However, this negative outlook is only one side after all. With the spread of Japanese ACGN culture, Japanese JK uniforms gradually immerse themselves in East Asia, take root in various places, and become a branch of the Central Asian culture in various societies.

To sum up, we can see that in the evolution of Japanese uniform history, sailor collars and plaid shirts and jackets have not been worn on female high school students from the beginning, but their appearance is not groundless, but has its own The historical evidence is closely related to the modern development of Japan. There are many stories that finally settled in the historical evolution of clothing and became the JK uniform of today.

The germination of JK uniform culture in China

Since the 1980s, Japanese animation works describing high school life have gradually increased. The Japanese head animation company Kyoto Animation often uses high school life as the entrance to the content, telling the stories of many clubs such as the light music department, the literary department, the classical department, and the swimming department. “Detailed Demon” Jingani will work hard on the design of uniforms while telling stories. There are school uniforms adapted from real life in Japan, as well as completely original uniforms.

Maybe the original artist did not expect that the school uniform in the work will be broadcast in Asia along with the story and the work, which will have a significant impact on the young generation in Asia in the future. These works naturally became the origin of the rise of Chinese JK uniform culture.

I want to wear it if I see too much and feel good. This is one reason why popular fashion tends to rise among young people. Speaking of the popularity of JK uniforms in China, it is generally considered to be after 2010.

Smartphones, social media, online shopping, and the post-90s generation have gradually become social groups with consumption power, which are the “infrastructures” that JK Uniforms can develop in China.

Before this, fans or players were in ChinaEveryone knows it. “

After a small-scale investigation by Dongxi Entertainment, the first batch of sellers who established JK uniforms in China were mostly interested-driven. They either liked JK uniforms or were heavy two-dimensional users. They opened stores as a continuation of their hobbies.

To a certain extent, the first batch of JK uniform sellers can be regarded as KOL representatives in the circle. Most of them themselves are senior users in the circle, and they have a more comprehensive understanding of JK uniforms, and they have formed a certain fan base in the store. Every time they promote their own uniforms, they are also promoting the JK uniform culture.

In addition, as a social media, Weibo has become an important platform for the early development of JK uniform culture. The social nature of the Weibo platform allows JK Uniform Culture to realize information exchange and discussion. At present, the number of readers of “JK Daily” on Weibo has exceeded 6.1 billion and the number of posts reached 260,000. The information KOL “JK Daily” of JK uniforms has reached 670,000 fans, becoming a platform for enthusiasts to exchange daily information.

In the process of dissemination of niche culture + business operation + Internet, a new role gradually appeared in the JK uniform circle-“grass planting”, That is JK uniform model.

As a personal hobby, most people in the circle like to take pictures and share. To a certain extent, “taking a set of stylized photos” was one of the reasons for purchasing JK uniforms in the first place. Therefore, there are gradually appearing good-looking models in the circle, mostly because of hobbies, and there are also some “three-pit models” who are themselves professional.

The upper body images of the JK uniforms of these models are attractive and can make people grow grass, so they are called “grass planters” in the circle. It is precisely because grass planting has a strong consumer pull, leading businesses will find a large number of grass planting plants to try on. The emergence of Planting Herbs has also become a major driving force for JK’s uniform to break the circle.

OnlineIn terms of form, comic exhibitions and other two-dimensional activities are still the way to spread JK uniform culture, but JK uniform fans will start to form independent groups, which allows JK uniform culture to develop independently, and gradually there are activities organized only for JK uniform fans. , Only for communication between JK uniforms and friends.

The diversified development of online and offline has allowed JK uniform culture to take root in Chinese society. Of course, from the perspective of society as a whole, it is still a niche culture, but in recent years, it has also shown a certain trend of breaking the circle.

JK uniform broke the circle?

On April 15, 2020, the plaid skirt named “Gentle Knife” generated 300,000 sales in less than half an hour, and this is not the first time “Gentle Knife” went online. This amazing data allows the market to focus on the grid skirts that they have not paid attention to. Some people say that the JK uniform is breaking the circle.

In fact, the breaking of the JK uniform is believed to have started in 2019, and its traces can be seen from the changes in user attributes. The audience is no longer limited to two-dimensional users, and more pan-two-dimensional users or users outside the circle are beginning to try JK uniforms.

For this part of the group, consumers pay the bill no longer just because of cultural interests, but will regard JK uniforms as a dressing style, a way of expressing their personality-for youth, cuteness, and girls The pursuit of feeling, or to make up for the regret that high school can’t wear uniforms, girls wear JK uniforms on the street, just like Hanfu, the public’s acceptance of JK uniforms is gradually increasing.

The changes in users have also changed the cultural attributes of JK uniforms. It can be said that JK uniforms, which are gradually deviating from the two-dimensional attribute, are transforming into a female fashion consumer culture.

At present, major social platforms are also beginning to pay attention to JK uniforms. To seize this trend, on the one hand, it caters to the preferences of platform users, and on the other hand, it also promotes JK uniforms to a more mass market.

Short video platforms such as Douyin and Kuaishou are more important social platforms that have helped JK Uniforms break the circle in recent years. At present, the volume of related topics of “JK Uniform” on Douyin has exceeded 22.6 billion, and related video works have exceeded 500,000. There are many female users under the age of 24 on Douyin, but the proportion of users with two-dimensional attributes is not high. Therefore, short video platforms such as Douyin have accelerated JK uniforms to break the circle for non-two-dimensional users.

JK Uniforms Taobao Apparel Operations previously accepted media reports that Taobao set up operations specifically for the sub-category of JK Uniforms many years ago, and the data has increased significantly since 2019. In 2020, Taobao launched more marketing activities, including JK uniform “New Force Week”, inviting stars to wear the same uniform, and holding a “grass planting” competition for student groups. In addition, in July 2020, Taobao also assembled JK uniform stores to hold MV shooting activities, taking advantage of the trend to promote Taobao stores out of the circle.

In recent years, the sales channels of JK uniforms have also been extended from online to offline. According to incomplete statistics from Dongxi Entertainment, there are already more than 10 offline stores selling JK uniforms in the Shanghai area. And there has been an offline collection store brand “Twelve Light Years” that has completed financing and is geared to the lifestyle of pan-two-dimensional girls. The product elements cover Hanfu Han elements, JK uniforms, Lolita, IP derivatives, etc., and the pan-two-dimensional head of cooperation The brands include Zhiyu Ji, Angel’s Tears, Zhongpai Uniform Hall, etc.

But from an overall point of view, the sales channels of JK uniforms are currently mainly online, and the business model is gradually fixed and a set of own communication methods have been formed.

According to Taobao’s top ten commodities data for 2020, JK uniforms are on the list. Since the second quarter, the transaction amount has skyrocketed by 255% year-on-year, and the industry scale is nearly 20 billion yuan.

JK uniforms, the love of girls, is gradually marching towards a small and beautiful industrialization.

Conclusion (Part 1)

Compared to Hanfu and Lolita, the JK uniform is the latest one in the lap time. It has become a representative of subculture in China and has a rich background in time and space.

Its origin comes from the strong export of Japanese ACGN culture to China since the 1980s and 1990s, which profoundly affected some of China’s post-80s and 90s, and planted seeds in the hearts of a new generation of young people.

At the same time, we should also see that it truly forms a small and beautiful product.The industry is inseparable from China’s post-80s and 90s becoming the mainstay of consumption, the popularization of smartphones, the shaping of cultural circles by social software, the development of e-commerce represented by Taobao and the development of the clothing industry chain behind e-commerce, the most important It is the society’s increasingly enlightened aesthetic and cultural tolerance.

Without any of the buttons on the chain above, this small JK uniform is probably difficult to wear easily.

Clothing is also a microcosm and window for the development of a small human society. From this point of view, its beauty lies not only in design and color, but also in the attitude and atmosphere shaped by economic, social atmosphere and human development.

It’s worth noting that In the process of “breaking the circle” of gradual industrialization, the core of JK uniform culture has been distorted at a certain level, and in certain content on certain platforms , The aesthetic trend of JK uniforms tends to return to the standard of “white, young and thin”, but the perspective is narrowed.

In response to this trend change, Liu Wenhui, a fashion design scholar at Tsinghua Academy of Fine Arts, also said that the current JK uniform-related videos on certain platforms are attracting a lot of attention because they actually attract some specific preferences. people. “What they watched in these short videos is not the clothes themselves, but the girls who are wearing the clothes are very beautiful.” It was originally an appreciation of JK uniforms, but they returned to their attention to female figures. This virtually became the shackles of JK’s uniform.

Regardless of whether the business community needs JK uniforms, this kind of shackles is regrettable.

This article is from WeChat official account:East and West Entertainment (ID: EW-Entertainment) , author: Xi Rui, Yang Jing