This article is from WeChat public account:China Science Expo (ID: kepubolan), author: haibaraemily, from the east title FIG IC

With the rapid development of deep space exploration and astronomical astronomy, our understanding of the celestial bodies inside and outside the solar system is also exploding.The change. What new discoveries have scientists made in recent years?

Part.1 Moon: “Water Ice Moon” Real Hammer

The analysis of the data of the lunar mineral plotter (referred to as M3) carried on the Moonship 1 is performed by the University of Hawaii’s Li Shuai team on the moon. In the permanent shadow area above 70° in the north and south, it is confirmed that many areas containing water ice have been found. This is the first direct evidence that scientists have discovered water ice on the moon. This achievement was published in the August 20, 2018 issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences [1].

The location of the moon’s south and north poles contains water ice (sky blue point), the gray level of the base map represents the surface temperature, the darker the color The colder. (Source: NASA [2])

This discovery demonstrates long-standing speculation that there may be water ice in the permanent shadow zone of the Moon’s polar regions, and that the moon is not completely dry as we once thought. At this point, the moon has finally joined the solar system water ice gift package, becoming the inner solar system in addition to VenusThe last one outside confirmed the discovery of large celestial bodies of water ice.

Part.2 Mars

1. Underground ice layer

On January 12, 2018, Science published the findings of the US Geological Survey’s (USGS)Colin M. Dundas team. They first discovered a large amount of pure groundwater ice in the Martian mid-latitude region through the image and spectral data of the Mars survey orbiter (MRO) [3] . These groundwater ice sheets not only help us trace the climate change in the history of Mars, but also hope to serve as a source of replenishment for astronauts and Martian immigrants who will land on Mars in the future.

Pure water ice exposed in the mid-latitude cliffs

(Source: [3])

2. Complex organic matter

On June 8, 2018, Science published two papers from the Jennifer L. Eigenbrode team at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center and the Christopher R. Webster team at the NASA Jet Dynamics Laboratory. The former, through the analysis of the borehole sampling data of Curiosity, first discovered a variety of thiophene (C4H4S) and other aromatics in the ancient mudstones of Mars. Alien and other complex organic matter [4]; the latter through the Curiosity Mars Rover spans up to 3 Mars years (about 6 Earth Years) period Observations of the Martian methane content confirm seasonal variations in methane content on Mars [5]. Although these two discoveries are not enough to prove that there have been or existed creatures on Mars, they cannot exclude the possibility of biological causes.

(Left) Curiosity first discovered complex organic compounds such as thiophene. Adapted from: NASA.

(Right) Seasonal changes in methane detected by Curiosity. Adapted from [5]

3. Discovery of Bingxia Lake

On July 25, 2018, Science published the latest results of the Robert Orosei team at the Italian Institute of Astrophysics. They used the MARSIS radar data from the Mars Express to find that there is a liquid lagoon at a depth of 1.5 km below the ice cap of the Martian South Pole, extending over about 20 km [6].