Curved overtaking refers not only to industrial technology, but also requires advanced and reasonable policy synchronization to get twice the result with half the effort.
Editor’s note: This article is from the WeChat public account “autocarweekly” (ID :autocarweekly), author Wardrobe.
A few days ago, foreign media reported that the German government plans to increase the existing electric vehicle subsidy by 50% and the subsidy ceiling to 6,000 euros per vehicle to accelerate the development of local new energy vehicles. The subsidy will be borne by half of the car manufacturers and dealers, and the other half by the government.
The new plan will increase the subsidy for plug-in hybrids from 3,000 euros to 4,500 euros, for electric vehicles with a price of more than 40,000 euros, the subsidy will increase to 6,000 euros, and the previous price of 60,000 euros or more will not be subsidized. The principle is to invest 3.5 billion euros to expand 50,000 public electric charging piles for electric vehicles, and extend the validity period of the subsidy policy from the end of 2020 to the end of 2025.
The German government hopes to have 10 million electric vehicles on the road by 2030. This is the action taken by Germany to reverse the two major competitors of the US and China in the electric vehicle market. After all, in 2018, the national automobile sales in Germany was about 3.436 million, of which the sales of new energy vehicles was only 67,500, accounting for only 1.96%. In comparison, China’s total sales of passenger cars in 2018 was 23.71 million, of which new energy vehicles sold 1.08 million, accounting for 4.25%.
From this we may wish to take a look at the new energy vehicle subsidies in the world’s representative automobile powers after China’s new energy vehicles have fully retreated.
Obama set a goal in the 2011 State of the Union address, trying to make the United States the first country to have 1 million electric cars by 2015.
The federal government has allocated $2.4 billion to support the development of next-generation electric vehicles and batteries, as follows:
Providing $1.5 billion in grants to US-based manufacturers for the production of high-efficiency batteries and their components; providing $500 million in grants to US-based manufacturers for the production of electric vehicles Other components, such as electric motors; and up to 4Billions of dollars to demonstrate and evaluate plug-in hybrids and other electrical infrastructure concepts, such as truck charging stations, electric rails, and training for technicians in electric vehicle manufacturing and repair.
Some industry analysts made a conclusion in early 2013 that the “small goal” of Obama’s 1 million electric vehicles could not be achieved. Sure enough, as of December 2016, the United States sold about 542,000 electric vehicles, which is a far cry from Obama’s goal.
Until nearly two years, the sales of electric vehicles in the United States officially rose.
In 2018, the United States surpassed Europe to become the world’s second largest electric vehicle market. According to an analysis by the Clean Energy Organization’s Transport and Environment, sales of electric vehicles in the United States surged by 120% in the last three months of 2018, while Europe only increased by 33% in the same period, making the United States more than 361,000 sales in Europe. 302,000 vehicles, ranking second in the world’s electric vehicle sales list. Of course, compared with the 1.256 million vehicles in China in the same period, accounting for 62.5% of the global new energy vehicle sales in that year, the second place in the United States is still only able to “looking up to look at the sky.”
Different from the form of car purchase subsidies in China, the United States mainly adopts preferential tax and fee policies. According to the US Federal Tax Administration, the current purchase of a new electric car in the United States can receive a tax credit ranging from $2,500 to $7,500. The amount of the tax credit depends on the size of the vehicle and its battery capacity.
For example, an electric car that can earn a $7,500 tax credit must meet the following requirements:
1. Purchase after December 31, 2009
2.Using traction battery
3. The battery has a capacity of at least 4 kWh
4. Charging with an external plugin source
5. The rated weight of the vehicle is 14,000 pounds
6. Meet emission standards
However, this tax credit has the property of being “obsolete”, depending on the car manufacturer’s car sales, when the car manufacturer sold 200,000 electric cars (including pure electric vehicles and PHE)V, etc., the tax credit for the car produced by the car manufacturer will be phased out within one year from the start of the second quarter.
There is currently no car manufacturer’s tax credit to enter the phase-out period, except for Tesla.
Because Tesla has broken the sales mark of 200,000 electric vehicles in July 2018, it is not possible to enjoy a tax credit for the purchase of Tesla in the United States. Only vehicles delivered before December 31, 2018 will receive a maximum tax credit of $7,500, and vehicles delivered before June 30, 2019 will receive a $3,750 credit, on July 1, 2019. Vehicles delivered between December 31, 2019 will receive a $1,875 credit, after which Tesla will not receive any credit.
Tesla’s Schedule of Tax Free Time in the United States
The Japanese government launched its first electric vehicle rewards program in 1996 and combined it with the Clean Energy Vehicles Initiative in 1998 to subsidize the purchase of electric, natural gas, methanol and hybrid vehicles. Tax incentives. Compared with the price of conventional fuel vehicles, the project provides up to 50% subsidies for clean energy vehicles.
In May 2009, the National Assembly of Japan passed the Green Vehicle Purchase Promotion Measures, which stipulates the tax reduction and tax exemption policies for energy-saving and environmentally-friendly vehicles. The tax reductions include purchase tax, tonnage tax, and automobile tax. From 25% to full reduction.
In 2010, the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry of Japan first identified fuel cell vehicles, plug-in hybrid vehicles, non-plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, clean diesel and natural gas vehicles in the Next Generation Automotive Strategy 2010. The “next-generation car” can directly waive the purchase tax and tonnage tax, and strive to achieve 20% to 50% of the new car sales by 2020.
Compared with other countries, Japan’s new energy vehicles are particularly in need of tax and fee reduction support.Because Japan’s automobile taxes and fees are few in the world, this high is not “relatively high” but “absolutely high”. In developed countries, Japan’s car tax is 31 times that of the United States, and French car ownership is zero. And these taxes are not charged to the car manufacturer, but charged to the owner of the car.
The parking fee in Japan is also prohibitively high. The average parking fee in Tokyo is around RMB 100/1 hour. The high cost of car use has led many Japanese families to have a rigid demand for the car, such as the convenience of picking up and dropping off children (although more and more people in Japan now choose not to have children, the problem of aging is becoming more serious), otherwise they will tend to Public transportation.
The Japanese government has continued to promote subsidies for clean energy vehicles in recent years on the basis of tax exemptions. At present, the subsidy for pure electric vehicles is “pure electric drive km/km×0.1” and the subsidy limit is 600,000 yen; Plug-in hybrid vehicles are subsidized by a fixed amount of subsidies of 200,000 yen; fuel cell vehicles are subsidized by means of “sales price difference between fuel cell vehicles and gasoline vehicles of the same class × 2/3”, and the subsidy amount is not set. Upper limit.
The UK’s plug-in new energy vehicle subsidy began on January 1, 2011 and is available throughout the UK. The program provides a 25% subsidy for plug-in new energy vehicles with a subsidy limit of £5,000.
Since April 1, 2015, the subsidy ratio has been raised to 35% and the subsidy limit is still £5,000. In August of the same year, the British government also announced that it would provide at least 200 million pounds of funds to continue to provide plug-in new energy vehicle subsidies.
As the UK completed the sales target of 50,000 new energy vehicles ahead of schedule, in 2016, the UK announced that the subsidy policy will be extended until 2018, and new subsidies for plug-in cars and trucks were introduced. British consumers who buy electric trucks with CO2 emissions less than 75 g/km can get up to £8,000 in car subsidies. During this time, Chinese car companies such as BYD Bus and SAIC Chase have received subsidies from the British government for new energy vehicles.
With the decision of the British referendum to “Brexit”, the British government announced in November 2018 that the subsidy for pure electric vehicles would be reduced by 1,000 pounds, while subsidies for plug-in hybrid vehicles were also eliminated.
It is well known that driving in London is subject to congestion charges. In 2015, the British government was on new energy vehicles.The preferential policies stipulate that pure electric vehicles and eligible plug-in hybrid vehicles can enjoy full exemption from London’s traffic congestion charges.
But this preferential policy is gradually shrinking. From April 2019, only the Euro 6 emission standard will be met, and the carbon dioxide emissions will not exceed 75g/km. At least 0 cars with 20 emissions can enjoy the London congestion fee. Exemptions, and the congestion fee waiver policy will be completely cancelled by December 2025.
In November 2010, the Government of India announced through the Ministry of New Energy and Renewable Energy a subsidy of 9.5 billion rupees for electric vehicles. The subsidy is provided at a rate of up to 20% of the ex-factory price of the vehicle.
According to the upper subsidy limit, the subsidy limit for four-wheel electric vehicles is 100,000 rupees, the two-wheel electric vehicle is 4,000 rupees, the high-speed two-wheel electric vehicle is 5,000 rupees, the electric minibus is 400,000 rupees, and the three-wheel electric vehicle is 60,000 rupees (1 yuan is equal to 10.2 rupees). But if you want to get subsidies, manufacturers need to prove that 30% of the components of the vehicle are made in India. The plan ends on March 31, 2012.
In April 2014, the Indian government issued a new subsidy program, in addition to electric vehicles, the hybrid vehicle is also included in the new subsidy range. The plan provides a subsidy of Rs. 150,000 for four-wheeled new energy vehicles that meet the requirements and a subsidy of Rs 30,000 for two rounds of new energy vehicles. India’s goal is to have 7 million electric cars on the road by 2020.
India’s new energy subsidy policy has two similarities with China.
One is that there is no subsidy for imported vehicles.
Second, local governments can provide additional local subsidies. For example, Chandigarh, Madhya Pradesh, Kerala, Gujarat and West Bengal provide partial VAT refunds. Delhi not only does not charge VAT, road tax and registration fees, but also provides a 15% subsidy for certain electric vehicles.
This year India continues to expand subsidies for new energy vehicles. The government continues to add $1.4 billion in subsidies for the purchase of electric vehicles. The new subsidy has so far been handed over to new energy vehicle buyers by about $50 million. It has provided the state with $360 million for the purchase of 5,000 electric buses.
In summary, from the changes in the subsidy policies of various countries, it can be seen that the development status of new energy vehicles varies from country to country.
The situation in the United States is similar to that in China.When the sales volume of new energy vehicles rises steadily, when the number of new energy vehicles reaches a certain level, the supporting equipment (such as public charging piles) will increase with the sales of new energy vehicles, and the acceptance of new energy vehicles will gradually increase. It will also gradually decline, trying to make new energy vehicles a normal consumption.
Japan adopts a two-step strategy of pure electric and hydrogen fuel vehicles in the orientation of new energy vehicles. For example, Nissan’s listening wind was once Europe’s best-selling pure electric vehicle, while Toyota spent more time on hydrogen. Fuel cell vehicle Mirai.
Japan began selling non-plug-in hybrid vehicles in the early 1990s. In addition, Japan has a policy subsidy for kei car fuel vehicles with a displacement of less than 660cc, so Japan’s new energy vehicle subsidies have been relatively stable. The overall car subsidy basis is mainly based on the environmental protection level of the vehicle, such as the amount of pollutants discharged, and will not be specially taken care of or dealt with in a particular form of new energy.
Because of the decline of the auto industry and the recurrence of the Brexit situation, the UK is in a state of uncertainty in the new energy subsidy policy. In the case that the electric vehicle market has not yet reached a relatively mature level, subsidies will fall back and they will have to rush. In 2040, the decision to completely ban fuel vehicles, “crossing the river by feeling the stones”, can only be said that this former automobile industry power is at best a participant, not a decider, in the future of new energy vehicles.
As for India, not only the new energy automobile industry, but the entire automobile industry is still in the development stage. The advantage is that it can avoid the gap of the automobile industry in the era of some fuel vehicles. The worry is that the foundation of India’s new energy automobile industry seems to be no better than fuel. How much is the car. In addition to the green channel for consumers to open new energy vehicle consumption, India also faces the problem of how to rationally open a green channel to foreign automakers in the field of new energy vehicles.
For China, where the sales of new energy vehicles and the development of subsidies are already ahead of the curve, perhaps it is more important to think about how to rely on their own market experience to develop next steps after following the track of others. After all, the curve overtaking refers not only to industrial technology, but also requires advanced and reasonable policy synchronization to get twice the result with half the effort.