China News Agency, Beijing, May 23 news, Mars exploration in July this year will usher in an important launch “window period”, when China will choose the opportunity to implement the first Mars exploration mission “Tianwen 1”. During the two sessions of the National People’s Congress, the reporter interviewed Bao Weimin, member of the National Committee of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference, member of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and director of the Science and Technology Committee of China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation Limited, to explain the five highlights of China’s first Mars exploration.

Highlight one: Complete the three steps of “falling tour” at one time

Throughout the history of global aerospace, human beings have a unique feeling for Mars bell”. Why did you choose Mars for the first stop of China’s planetary exploration?

Bao Weimin explained that Mars is one of the planets in the solar system that is closer to the earth and the natural environment is most similar to the earth. Mars exploration not only helps to explore the existence and evolution process of Mars life, but also can understand the evolution history of the earth and predict the future change trend of the earth, and also open up new living space for humans to find potential targets.

China ’s first Mars exploration mission will achieve the three goals of “circling, landing, and patrolling” on Mars through one launch mission, and carry out global and comprehensive exploration of Mars. It also conducts detailed inspections and surveys of key areas on the surface of Mars.

In Bao Weimin ’s view, China ’s first Mars exploration mission was actually a “overtaking in a curve”. If you can complete the three steps of “round trip” at one time, this leapfrog plan will be the first in the world.

Highlight 2: “The 7 minutes of terror” is the biggest difficulty

There are many difficulties in Mars exploration. Since 1961, humans have carried out Mars exploration activities 45 times, but only 22 successful and partially successful missions, the success rate is less than 50%.

The Chinese Mars rover is divided into two parts: the orbiter and the lander. It is expected to be launched by the Long March 5 Yao-4 rocket in July this year. The rocket launches the detector to the ground fire transfer orbit, and then enters the ring fire elliptical orbit with the support of the ground measurement and control system, and runs to the selected entry window. The detector will perform orbit control and release the landing patrol assembly.

After a successful soft landing of the landing patrol assembly, the rover (namely the patrol) will be separated from the landing platform to carry out regional patrol detection and related tasksCheng practice activities. The surround will provide relay communication links for the rover and carry out scientific exploration around.

Bao Weimin said that when the Mars rover is launched, it mainly looks at the performance of the Long March 5 remote four rocket. During the fire, it will continuously modify the detection according to the specific conditions of the orbit. The direction of the aircraft’s flight is to brake in time when it reaches the vicinity of Mars. These actions must be done in one go, otherwise it will fly to a deeper space.

“The biggest difficulty of Mars exploration lies in the” horror 7 minutes “-that is, during the reentry, descent and landing process, the speed of the detector must be reduced from 20,000 kilometers to zero in 7 minutes.” > Bao Weimin said that this requires a combination of aerodynamic shape, parachute, engine, multi-stage deceleration and landing recoil to implement a soft landing.

Highlight 3: Can work for 3 Martian months

In order to avoid the influence of extreme weather on Mars, the Chinese Mars rover will be set to sleep and wake up autonomously , Can work for 3 Mars months, equivalent to 92 days on Earth (Mars rotation cycle is about 24 hours and 37 minutes). It is worth noting that the rover will be equipped with a detection radar to detect a certain depth of Mars underground.

Bao Weimin said that due to the large delay of long-distance data transmission, this requires that the rover must have a high degree of autonomy. At the same time, the Mars light intensity is small, and the Mars atmosphere reduces the sunlight, so the energy supply of the rover is also more difficult than the lunar rover. These factors make the first Mars exploration mission more difficult and complicated.

Highlight four: 13 kinds of loads to complete 5 scientific goals

China ’s first Mars exploration mission set five scientific goals, mainly involving space environment, Research on morphological characteristics, surface structure, etc. To this end, the Mars rover is equipped with 13 payloads, including 7 on the surround and 6 on the lander.

At that time, the six types of payloads carried on the lander can detect scientific issues of public concern. “The Mars rover also carries an atmospheric environment tester, which can obtain information on Mars temperature and wind power. The people will be able to intuitively understand the similarities and differences between Mars and the earth’s environment.”

Highlight 5: The Three Kingdoms probe “compete on the same stage”

Every 26 months, Earth and Mars will move to the nearest position, and launch at this time The probe will save a lot of fuel, and 2020 will be the “window period” of Mars exploration activities. This year’s Mars exploration, China, the United States and the Arab States will “play on the same stage”.

In addition to China ’s “Tianwen 1”, this year ’s flying to Mars is the US “Fortitude” rover and the UAE ’s “Hope” Mars probe. The ExoMars Mars rover, which was originally scheduled to launch this year in Europe and Russia, has been announced to be postponed to 2022.

“China will implement missions such as Mars sampling and return, Jupiter exploration and so on around 2030. Currently, key technology research is being carried out to prepare for the implementation of the project. It will make unremitting efforts to improve human understanding of the deep space of the universe. “Bao Weimin said.

(Originally titled “One-step” round-trip patrol “in place, Commissioner Bao Weimin explained five highlights of China’s first Mars exploration”)