Bankruptcy exists in the economic world as well as in the world economy
Lecture 3 of “Dynamics of Capitalism”, the theme is “The timing of the world “.
In this lecture, Braudel no longer focuses on the microcosm as the previous two lectures, but integrates various factors such as material life, exchange, and capitalism. Splicing together, “Associating capitalism, its process, its assets and means with the overall history of the world.”
Braudel’s splicing of world time series , Is accomplished through two concepts: world economy and economic world. The world economy generally refers to the economy that encompasses all economies; and the economic world is a new term created by Braudel, which refers to the regional economy represented by regions on the earth when an economy is formed in the world, which is a bit like us The economic circle and economic belt we are talking about today.
According to Braudel’s vision, any economic world has three characteristics:
First, any economic world occupies a specific geographic space.
Second, any economic world must have a pole and a center, which represents a dominant city.
Third, every economic world is divided into continuous areas: the heart, the middle area and the fringe area; the heart area becomes the property, wealth, talent, finance and transaction The place where places converge, the middle area is slightly nearer, and the edge area is hardly worth mentioning.
But in any case, at any point in time, an economic world is a situation where multiple forms of society overlap and coexist, and capitalism is also here. This grows under a system that is classified according to rules: the outer areas feed the middle areas, especially the central areas.
Based on the above analysis, Braudel formed three important judgments:
One , Capitalism is still based on the deprivation of international resources and the use of international opportunities. It is precisely because of this that capitalism takes the world as its scope of activities and extends to the world, advocating that globalization is consistent with the development logic of capitalism;
Second, capitalism usually relies on the tenacious insistence of legal and de facto monopoly, completely disregarding market logic;
third, capitalist society It does not cover the entire economy, and does not cover the entire society. The three-layer structure of material life, market economy and capitalist economy is still not outdated.
Rodel firmly believes that capitalism is a top-level economy, which is entirely derived from economic activities at the top or reaching the top; as a monopoly economy, capitalism is more dependent on capital than commodity exports. And credit to reach and open the external market.
For the above judgment, Braudel cited the changes in the economic centers of Europe and its surroundings in the 14th-18th century as evidence: 14th century In the 1980s, Venice became an important economic city; in the 1960s, the center moved from Venice to Antwerp; during the Dutch and Spanish wars in 1550-1560, the center moved back to the Italian city of Genoa; after a short time, Amsterdam rose; 1780-1815 During the years, London became the leader of the European economy; after 1929, the economic center moved to New York.
For the reasons for the changes in the economic centers of Europe and its surroundings in the 14-18th century , Braudel believes that the core factor is the economic crisis, “every time, the center shift is realized in struggle, confrontation, and severe economic crisis. Usually, it is the harsh economic climate that ultimately destroys the old centers that have been threatened and confirms the emergence of the new centers. “In every crisis, the strategy and ability to deal with the economy have become the core factors that determine whether the economic center will change. The economic center will remain in place if it cannot survive the past, and the economic center will be lost.” In short, the formation of the center , Loss, and reformation are usually associated with the long-term crisis of the specific overall economy. “
This lecture corresponds to the third volume of “Material Civilization, Economy and Capitalism in the Fifteenth to Eighteenth Centuries,” Braudel’s account The mutual influence of bankruptcy events in different economies:
First, in the early 16th century, with the prosperity and rise of Antwerp’s economy, it turned out to be around Italy The absence of an active economic glory brought an end to the Italian trading houses: In 1518, the Frescobaldi family declared bankruptcy; in 1523, the Guaterotti family cleaned up corporate debt.
Secondly, the wave of bankruptcy of a large number of firms in September 1751, givingIt means that the disposal of land as bankruptcy property is not as convenient as stock trading. “When the Bank of Tiepolo Bisani in Venice went bankrupt in 1584, it took time to clean up the property, and it was a loss when it was discounted.”
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