Author | 黄青春

Title map | Oriental IC

The world is moving at a high speed, and women are involved. The awakening of “their” self-consciousness has become an important force affecting society.

Tiger will set its sights on a new generation of women who are independent and enterprising. They come from the fields of culture, technology and business, and in the interaction with the world, they complete self-sustainability. Construction and reconstruction.

Recently, the news that “the Lyndra company in the United States has successfully developed a monthly contraceptive pill for women” and “the Indian developed a RISUG for male contraceptives” has triggered worldwide There has been fierce discussion, and the equality of contraception between men and women has become the focus of debate among the people. In modern society, equality between men and women should not be limited to social division of labor and identity, but also to gender contraceptive options. All countries around the world are committed to promoting men’s use of new contraceptives through education, publicity and financial assistance. The way in which death is transmitted to the world over and over again the importance of contraception.

On December 4th, according to the BBC, Lyndra Biopharmaceutical announced that it has successfully developed a monthly contraceptive pill for women. It has completed living animal experiments and will conduct human experiments in recent years. The drug solves the problem of compliance with oral contraceptives and can stay in the stomachContraceptive hormones are released slowly for several weeks without affecting food digestion.

This is mainly due to the hexagram structure design of Lyndra extended release oral capsules. This supramolecular elastomer gel is pH sensitive. As the stomach acid dissolves the shell of the pill, the arm is unfolded to slowly release the loaded drug. It will not dissolve until it enters the small intestine and encounters a pH near neutral environment, which is completely eliminated Risk of intestinal blockage.

Schematic diagram of drug action from Lyndra’s official website

A few days ago, Dr. Giovanni Traverso of Harvard Medical School and his colleagues at MIT published this research in the journal Science Translational Medicine.

In addition to women’s monthly contraceptives, Lyndra Biomedical’s active treatment plan also includes treatments for Alzheimer’s disease, HIV, opiate dependence, and schizophrenia. It just received 13 million Gates Foundation in July this year. USD B + round of financing.

However, what is more exciting than women’s monthly contraceptives is the male contraceptive RISUG developed and being approved in India-“Reversible suppression of sperm under guidance” (Reversible inhibition of sperm under guidance, RISUG for short) .

The Times of India reported on November 20 that an injectable male contraceptive pill in India has completed clinical trials and has entered the approval stage of the Indian Medicines Agency. Br

Screenshots of the Times of India-related reporting site

It is understood that Sharma, a senior scientist of the Indian Medical Research Council of the study, (RSSharma) said that RISUG only requires one injection of contraception The effect can be as long as 13 years. At present, 303 people have participated in the phase III clinical trial with a success rate of 97.3%. There has not yet been a case of failure or severe adverse reactions.

Once RISUG is approved by the Indian Medicines Agency and put on the market, it is expected to replace vasectomy. It is even possible to split half of the global $ 10 billion contraceptive market and significantly reduce $ 3.2 billion in condom sales each year.

Because this part of the market was previously dominated by pharmaceutical giants Bayer (Bayer AG) = “Remarks”> (Pfizer inc.) and Merck’s (Merck & co.) control, while In poor countries, RISUG can provide birth control for up to 13 years for only $ 10 in surgical costs, which will greatly reduce the use of condoms and female contraceptives, or will completely solve the world-class biomedical problem of male contraception.

RISUG clinical surgery is very simple: in the case of male anesthesia under local anesthesiaAfter a small incision was made at the capsule to expose the vas deferens, the doctor injected Vasalgel (styrene maleic anhydride polymer gel) into the male vas deferens for several minutes After the gel will form a transparent coating on the wall of the vas deferens, the sperm passing through the coating will undergo a biochemical change, that is, the sperm is completely killed or damaged by the gel material, and no longer has The ability of the egg to bind.

The Vasalgel for RISUG injection is composed of 60 mg of styrene / maleic anhydride (styrene / maleic anhydride) copolymer and 120uL of solvent dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) , the copolymer is hydrolyzed to form a positively charged hydride under the action of water in semen Disturbs the negative charge on the surface of the sperm, destroys the cell membrane of the sperm and the enzymes necessary for the acrosome reaction of the fertilization process, and makes the sperm lose its ability to swim and bind to the egg. (See U.S. Patent 5,488,075) .

R. s. Sharma, Director of Reproductive Biology Health, Indian Medical Research Council, said, “This method is 98% effective in preventing pregnancy, as safe as a condom and without side effects.”

He also said that India has more unmet sexual needs for married women than any other country, and that condom use is less than 6% due to social stigma and lack of privacy in stores.

In fact, researchers have been in Lok Nayak Jai Prakash in Delhi since 2002A phase one clinical trial of the drug was conducted in Room 46 on the second floor of Narayan Hospital: One-third of the 140 men who had been injected with RISUG developed painless scrotal edema a few weeks later and the trial was discontinued for safety reasons.

In 2012, in a phase II clinical trial also conducted in India, subjects had been unable to detect viable spermatozoa in the semen ejected 5 days after receiving RISUG injection, and the contraceptive effect was estimated to last more than 10 years.

In 2019, phase III clinical trials proved that the success rate of this contraceptive method was 97.3%, no side effects were reported, and the contraceptive effect of one injection was as long as 13 years.

In addition to injecting contraceptives for up to 13 years, RISUG also has a very important feature-reversibility.

If the male who received RISUG injection repents during the 13-year contraceptive period, he only needs to inject bicarbonate or dimethyl sulfoxide at the same location, and then make the polymer through physical action such as vibration, microcurrent or rectal massage Dissociation from the wall of the vas deferens, sperm activity will return to normal, and the injector will have fertility again.

Of course, as a new type of contraceptive method that has entered the phase III clinical trial, its long-term application report is still unconvincing. Whether the reversibility of the drug can reach 100% remains to be seen. The impact on future generations requires more data validation.

A 2018 paper published by University of Virginia researchers raised concerns about the safety of RISUG, citing early animal clinical trials and research data suggesting that RISUG may damage sperm and tissue in male reproductive organs.

“So far, no data on the reversibility of RISUG in humans has been reported, and only animal tests have demonstrated the reversible potential of this product.”

However, Aaron, CEO of the Male Contraception Initiative, (AaronHamlin) Optimistic:” This thing will make your life a lot less troublesome, you just need to put the gel into the vase and leave the hospital, the next time you want to have sex Nothing to prepare. “

In recent years, some foreign experts have proposed the “ABC” principle for STD and AIDS prevention: Abstinence, Be faithful, Condom.

Sociologist and sexology researcher Li Yinhe previously explained that condoms have two functions: one is to prevent pregnancy; the other is to prevent sexually transmitted diseases. The former is the main function of condoms, and the latter is the main function of condoms. The world’s entry into the AIDS era and the massive increase in occasional sexual relations have shown strong demand.

According to the National Population Health Science Data Center, the incidence of various sexually transmitted diseases among adolescents aged 10-29 years has been increasing, including syphilis. After a long period of decline, the incidence of gonorrhea has re-emerged. The main reason is that condoms have not been used.

The reason is that although condoms are the safest of all contraceptive methods, most people are not very aware of contraception, and young people have not developed a consciousness of using condoms consciously. Moreover, as young people’s attitude towards sex becomes more open, most men hate wearing condoms, and some women want men to avoid wearing condoms either because of allergies or because they are uncomfortable. After all, it reduces the happiness of both parties to a certain extent.